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First shunt inserted on 9th March by David Dillard into Clyde Shields (died of cardiac disease in 1971); then Harvey Gentry (d1987); commencing maintenance HD for ESRD in Seattle - the first long-term dialysis patients, in first longterm unit in USA - Richard Stewart, Henry Mahon (Michigan); developed hollow fibre dialyser, which became wildly available in 1960 - René Kuss, Marcel Legrain (Paris); first successful living transplant between non related patients in France (January) - Michael Woodruff (Edinburgh); first successful living transplant (with twins) in UK () - Roy Calne (London); first used 6-mercaptopurine (6-MCP) in dogs - John Hopewell (London); first successful living transplant between non-twin siblings (1.11.60). First used - Founding of ISN - ' Premier Congrès International de Néphrologie' in Evian and Geneva; first meeting of the ISN; where the word 'nephrology' appeared for the first time at a conference (2-4th September) - Fred Kiil (Copenhagen); first cellulose flat plate dialyser; first dialyser that could be reassembled and used without blood pump - Stanley Shaldon (London); first chronic HD centre in UK - Nose (Japan); home dialysis first described, using a washing machine Wayne Quinton and Belding Scribner (Seattle, USA); Jan 8th, USA's first out-of-hospital dialysis centre; the Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, later renamed the Northwest Kidney Centers (NKC); at Swedish Hospital (Seattle) - Stanley Shaldon (London), Jo Eschbach, Belding Scribner (Seattle), John Merrill (Boston); home haemodialysis introduced (partly as a response to hepatitis B outbreaks) - Hippocrates Yatzidis (Greece); first described the use of charcoal in a haemoperfusion system; at the first meeting of what became the ERA-EDTA - Johannes van Rood/Aad van Leeuwen (Leiden, Netherlands), Paul Terasaki (UCLA); used histocompatability testing (tissue typing using white blood cells) to select the most suitable donor-recipient combinations - Keith Reemtsma (New Orleans); kidney xenotransplant From chimpanzee kidney - National Kidney Foundation (NKF); formed from National Nephrosis Foundation - Stanley Shaldon (London), David Kerr (Newcastle) and Williamm Drukker (Amsterdam) founded the ' WEDA' (West European dialysis Association) a forerunner of the ERA-EDTA; and their first meeting was on Sept 24th in Amsterdam, with 210 delegates from 16 countries - Southeast Organ Procurement Foundation (SEOPF) formed; first organ procurement and distribution programme - UK's National Tissue Typing and Reference Laboratory (NTTRL) established at Southmead Hospital, Bristol - British Transplant Society (BTS); founded by John Hopewell and Leslie Brent.

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The city's name is derived from the ancient Castellum Cattorum, a castle of the Chatti, a German tribe that had lived in the area since Roman times.

Kassel was first mentioned in 913 AD, as the place where two deeds were signed by King Conrad I.

The place was called Chasella and was a fortification at a bridge crossing the Fulda river.

Domenico Cotugno (Naples); first described a 28 year old dropsical soldier with coagulable urine, fever and oedema Rosen von Rosenstein (Upsala, Sweden); noted that scarlatina could be followed by 'dropsy' (fluid overload) and bloody urine; first description of acute nephritis William Charles Wells (London); first systematic description of (78) cases of the dropsy and proteinuria; noting at autopsy, hard thick cortices in one patient, and abnormal large and soft kidneys in another​ Pierre-Francois Olive Rayer (Paris); first described renal vein thrombosis, renal anaemia, and a classification system that distinguished acute nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and pyelonephritis; and introduced urine microscopy into medical practice - Gottlieb Gruges (Germany); published ' Atlas of Pathological Histology'; noted '"inflammatory globules" on renal microscopy, and concluded they represented inflammation of the Malpighian Bodies (glomeruli); ie described different types of glomerulonephritis - Samuel Wilks; suggested that hypertension could occur de novo with normal kidneys - Emerich Ullmann (Vienna); first experimental transplant (autotransplant in a dog), lasted 5 days.

He then carried out the first xenotransplant (dog-to-goat), and first two human transplants (pig and goat to human), all unsucessful - Alexis Carrel (Lyon) and Charles Guthrie; further developed methods of joining blood vessels, making transplantation possible - Friedrich von Muller (Germany); a pathologist, introduced the term ‘Nephrosis’ - Fritz Voelcker and Alexander von Lichtenberg (Heidelberg, Germany); first retrograde pyeloigraphy; used colloidal silver but later found to be toxic John Abel, Leonard Rowntree, BB Turner (Baltimore, USA); first to describe in vivo haemodialysis of rabbits (removing salicylic acid), dogs (and later a 400 ml blood exchange in a human) with the first artificial kidney made of collodion and using hirudin anticoagulant Franz Volhard and Theodor Fahr; in their famous monograph on Bright's Disease, noted that nephrosclerosis could run two courses; one 'benign', one 'malignant', subsequently renamed 'malignant hypertension' by Keith, Wagner and Kernohan (1928) - Thomas Addis (Stamford, USA); published (with Jean Oliver) his classic ' The Renal Lesions in Bright's Disease'; first to standardise the technique for the quantitaive examination of the urinary sediment - the Addis Count; built on the work of Ambard (see 1910), using modifications of the urine/plasma urea ratio, a direct precursor to the urea clearance concept, as conceptualised by George Barnett in 1920 - Louis Leiter (New York); coined the term 'nephrotic syndrome' - Eric Bywaters and D Beall (Hammersmith, London); description of crush injury; one of first descriptions of AKI - Freeman S, Freeman WMC; Aluminium Hydroxide first used as phosphate binder in renal failure - Nils Alwall (Lund, Sweden); developed AV shunt - Leonard Skeggs, Jack Leonards; flat plate, parallel flow dialyser, utilised countercurrent flow (blood and dialysate) - Arthur Mac Neill (Buffalo, NY), Warren Collins (Boston); Kolff-Brigham dialysis machine, with flat plate dialyser used in the Korean War for AKI - First dialysis procedure in the United States performed at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York on 26th Jan - Renal Association founded; UK society of nephrologists; first president Arthur Osman; second nephrology society; first meeting 30th March, London - Ada and Harry De Bold; founded the Committee for Nephrosis Research, which would become the National Nephrosis Foundation then later the US' NKF - René Küss, Charles Dubost (Paris), Marceau Servelle (Strasbourg); first renal transplants in France; and first used the extraperitoneal renal transplantation procedure which is in common use today - Rupert Billingham, Peter Medawar (Birmingham); landmark paper on immune tolerance - Paul Teschan (Walter Reed Army Medical Centre, Washington); using the Kolff-Brighma machine, he established the Renal Insufficiency Centre under the auspices of the US Army Surgical Research Team at the 11th Evacuation Hospital of the 8th Army, in Wonju, Korea; used 72 treatments on 31 soldiers with AKI.

; spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel and the Kreis of the same name and has 200,507 inhabitants in December 2015.Previously 8/10 soldiers with post-traumatic AKI died - Barbara Coleman-Wysocki and John Merrill; first published article by nurse and physician describing the artificial kidney (in AJN) - Gordon Murray (Toronto); first successful deceased donor transplant series - Louis Michon, Jean Hamburger, Jean Vayse (Paris); first successful living transplant (lived 21 days) - Jean Hamburger probably coined the term 'nephrology' - Gertrude Elion, George Hitchings; synthesised 6-mercaptopurine William B Graham and Wilhem Kolff (Kolff's “Orange Juice” kidney); first commercial dialysing machine made by Baxter Corporation, ' Baxter/Travenol recirculating U-200A twin coil dialyser'; available for sale on 30th Oct; machine cost ,000; disposable artificial kidneys cost each Acute haemodialysis recommenced in the UK; first on 30th Sept 1956 in Leeds General Infirmary by (Frank Parsons, urologist); then Hammersmith, London (Wing Commander Sir Ralph Shackman) and RAF Halton (Group Captain Ralph Jackson, urologist), and Jo Joekes - Leon Jacobson and Eugene Goldwasser (Chicago, USA); kidneys were identified as the major site of EPO production in the adult mammal - John Baer, Karl Beyer, James Sprague, and Frederick Novello; formulated the thiazide diuretic chlorothiazide - Morton Maxwell; multihole PD catheter - Richard Reuben, Paul Doolan (San Fransisco); soft PVC multihole catheter; first chronic treatment with intermittent PD - Sterile peritoneal dialysis fluid became available - Gordon Murray (Toronto); first successful non-identical twin transplant - Joseph Murray (Boston); first non-identical (fraternal) twin transplant in USA; used sublethal total body irradiation (TBI) - ' Fred' Peter Raper (Leeds); first successful (8 months) deceased donor transplant in the UK (July); used cyclosphosphamide as immunosuppression In the USA, an anonymous lay committee, or 'life-and-death committee', was established to decide which patients were worthy of treatment.Patient candidates were judged on their moral value, their position in the community, and their likelihood of continuing existence - Belding Scribner, Wayne Quinton and David Dillard (Seattle, USA); AV shunt, making chronic dialysis possible.The former capital of the state of Hesse-Kassel has many palaces and parks, including the Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Kassel is also known for the documenta exhibitions of contemporary art.